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How to Cite a Website APA, 7th Edition with Reference Examples

  • Eduhelphub,
  • May 30, 2023

In the world of digitization, academia itself has adapted to online means of education. In fact, the assignments too are now written and submitted through online media. In such a scenario, the evidence to back arguments in the paper stands out to be incomplete if there is no reference to any digital source.

It is not always possible to keep on buying books and look through the library database to find magazines, journals, and articles that are current or from yesteryears till you get the supportive elements to prove your thesis. There are interviews, video recordings, online images, podcasts, and other crucial sources available on the internet that may serve strong points of explanation. You might want to add them as a reference. But how to cite a website APA format with specific rules to maintain a consistent and orderly appearance? A seasoned paper writer from our write my essay service has done thorough research and presented to you a pertinent guide to cite websites and other digital sources in APA style.

Introduction on How to Cite a Website APA Style

All the elucidations below are based on the 7th edition of the APA style manual, which is the latest version in use to date. There are multiple other electronic sources other than websites that a student may use as an in-text citation followed by a bibliography listing. According to the essay writing help expert, the requisites and formatting pattern of each source are slightly distinct from one another, as each differs in identification and the type of information they provide. The formatting rule is written followed by reference examples in each category. So, let’s get started with understanding how to cite a website APA format.

APA Citation of a Webpage

The online content of a webpage can be a web article, blog post, or interview. Also, there are different types of websites such as educational, organizational, and government-owned sites. The rules for citing all of them have been stated systematically.

Web Article with an Author

Last name of the author, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of the page. Site name. URL

Eyman, I. (2023, April 7). Which Probiotics Actually Boost Gut Health? An MD Explains. Camille Styles. https://camillestyles.com/wellness/best-probiotics-for-women/

  • If the article is written by a corporation or group, the following would be the citation format:

Group/Organization name. (Year, Month Date). Title of the page. Site name (if applicable). URL

Sumito Corporation. (2023, May 24). Business Restructuring of TBC Corporation. https://www.sumitomocorp.com/en/jp/news/release/2023/group/16740

Web Article without an Author

You may come across an article where the name of the author is not provided. Additionally, you may have recorded that the page content has the possibility of getting changed or updated over time. In that case, add a retrieval date. Read further to know how to cite a website APA with these conditions.

Title of the page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

The 50 Best Education Blogs. (2023, May 18). Detailed. Retrieved February 4, 2023, from https://detailed.com/education-blogs/

Web Article with no Date

Group/Author name. (n.d.). Title of the page. Site name (if applicable). URL

Vacation Rentals by Owner. (n.d.). The Ultimate Guide to Fall in Vermont. VRBO. https://www.vrbo.com/vacation-ideas/seasonal-vacations/the-ultimate-guide-to-fall-in-vermont

Web Article with Assigned DOI

Scholarly journals and documents that are available on the internet sometimes may have the potential to change URLs. Some publishers, in such instances, assign a unique identification number which is called a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Besides this, review the following format on how to cite a website APA style if there is more than one author of an article.

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number(Issue), page numbers. DOI

Lipscombe, K., Tindall-Ford, S., & Lamanna, J. (2021, January 8). School middle leadership: A systematic review. Sage Journal, 51(2), 137-149. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143220983328

Web Article with no DOI

Follow the APA format of the previous section as it is leaving the DOI number.

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number(Issue), page numbers.

Citing a Wikipedia Article

Title of article. (Publishing Date). In Wikipedia. URL

Psychoanalytic theory. (2022). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychoanalytic_theory

If you seek such ideas to use as your descriptive essay examples, EduHelpHub will be pleased to assist you.

Citing an Online Interview

If you have conducted an interview in-person one to one, or through emails, then the source must only be included as an in-text citation, and not in the bibliography. The in-text citation in APA format will be:

(“Personal Interview”, May 14, 2023)

This is how to cite a website APA style if an interview is posted online in an audio or printed text form:

Lastname, F. M. (Interviewee). (Publishing Date). Title/Interview Description. URL

Austin, S. (2023, May 19). I think the show gets interesting in the next couple episodes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/alfredkonuwa/2023/05/20/steve-austin-on-new-ae-show-why-he-texted-cm-punk-recently/

Citing Government Websites

Government Department. (Date). Title of the document. Parent Agency. URL

National Institute of Food and Agriculture. (2023, April 17). Engaging Community Volunteers Helps Reduce Food Insecurity in Montana. United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.nifa.usda.gov/about-nifa/blogs/engaging-community-volunteers-helps-reduce-food-insecurity-montana

Citing Online Available Books

Name of the author(s). (Date). Title of the book: Subtitle (Edition). Publisher. URL or DOI

James, H. (2010). Bundle of Letters: From the Same to Same (5th ed.). Amigo Reader. https://libro.eb20.net/Reader/rdr.aspx?b=553929

Social Media APA Citation

As a researcher, you may work on an ad topic or write about a celebrity, company, or brand. You may want to take polls or refer to a particular comment. There are many other reasons to take reference from such a source. So, let’s see how to cite a website APA that refers to a social media handle.


  • Use the following format if you want to refer to a Facebook post:

Username/Group name. (Date or n.d. whichever is applicable). Content description till first 20 words. [Post type]. Facebook. URL

Burger King Jamaica. (2023, May 15). Cook-off competition. [Image]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/photo?fbid=631661728990550&set=a.554888153334575

This type of competition would serve a good point to include in an essay introduction when you are writing upon reality shows.

  • Use the following format of how to cite a website APA if you want to refer to a Facebook page:

Username/Group name. (Date or n.d. whichever is applicable). Page type – for example, Home, Photos, About, etc. [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Date, from URL

Elle. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved October 30, 2022, from https://www.facebook.com/ELLEuk


  • How to cite a website APA style when it is an Instagram post:

Name [@username]. (Date or n. d. whichever is applicable). Content description till first 20 words/Picture title. [Post type]. Instagram. URL

LADbible [@ladible]. (2023, May 16). Firefighters chop down tree burning from inside. [Video]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CsRzH-jotUm/

  • How to cite a website APA style when it is an Instagram profile:

Name [@username]. (Date or n. d. whichever is applicable). Profile page type – for example, IGTV, Posts, Tags [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved Date, from URL

Discovery+ [@discoveryplus]. (n.d.). Reels [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved July 25, 2021, from https://www.instagram.com/discoveryplus/reels/

  • How to cite a website APA style when it is an Instagram highlight:

Name [@username]. (Date or n. d. whichever is applicable). Highlight title [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved Date, URL

Steve Harvey [@iamsteveharveytv]. (n.d.). Paper [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved April 7, 2022, from https://www.instagram.com/stories/highlights/18018907093344319/


  • When you want to use a Twitter post as a reference:

Name [@Twitter handle]. (Date). Content description till first 20 words/Media title. [Name of the media attached, if any] [Tweet/Moment]. Twitter. URL

Milloy, S. [@JunkScience]. (2023, January 16). Twitter tried to censor it but just wound up exposing (again) the lying nature of climate alarmism. [Image with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/JunkScience/status/1615027198909349899/photo/1

  • How to cite a website APA when you want to use a Twitter profile as a reference:

Name [@Twitter handle]. (n.d.). Twitter tab [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved Date, URL

Catturd [@catturd2]. (n.d.). Replies [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved June 27, 2019, from https://twitter.com/catturd2/with_replies

Online Forum

  • Learn how to cite a website APA format when you intend to refer to a forum post:

Name [@username]. (Date). Post title/description. [Online forum post]. Publisher. URL

Lacey. [@LuckyLaceyKS]. (2023, May 24). What movie blew your mind when you first saw it? [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/AskReddit/comments/13qk9vl/what_movie_blew_your_mind_when_you_first_saw_it/

  • Learn how to cite a website APA format when you intend to refer to a particular forum comment:

Name [@username]. (Date). Comment till first 20 words. [Comment on online forum post name]. Publisher. URL

Daniels. P. J. [@Eyeballus]. (2023, May 18). Humans will need to adapt to climate change in various ways to mitigate its impacts and ensure their well-being. [Comment on online forum post How will humans adapt to climate change?]. Quora. https://qr.ae/pyyOi7

YouTube or Video Blog

Whether it is a video taken from YouTube or any other blog, the APA citation website format is similar in both situations.

Lastname, F. M. [Screen name, if any]. (Date). Title of the video/Video description [Video file]. YouTube/Site name. URL

Marketing Against the Grain. [@MATGpod]. (2023, April 10). The MASSIVE AI Opportunity [Video]. YouTube. https://youtube.com/shorts/YTx1ep4oPq0?feature=share

APA Citation of a Podcast

  • How to cite a website APA style if the reference is a Podcast:

Lastname, F. M. (Hosts). (Date from-to). Podcast title [Audio podcast]. Site name. URL

Wilson, K., & Tulleken, X. (Hosts). (2021-2022). Dopamine [Audio podcast]. BBC Sounds. https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/p0brz7c9

  • How to cite a website APA style if the reference is directly pointing towards a Podcast episode:

Lastname, F. M. (Hosts). (Date). Episode name [Audio podcast episode]. In Name of audio series. Publishing site name. URL

Soares, N. (Host). (2023, April 5). Deep Deceptiveness [Audio podcast episode]. In LessWrong Curated Podcast. Listen Notes. https://www.listennotes.com/podcasts/lesswrong-curated/deep-deceptiveness-by-nate-CHkaQg5qFeY/

APA Citation of an Image or Slide

  • Suppose you came across an image like digital art or an infographic, or a clipart matching your demonstration speech ideas. This is how you cite the source using APA format:

Name of the creator/photographer. (Publishing year). Image description [Type of work]. Source. URL

Campbell, V. (2023, May 3). Scotch Mist [Photograph]. The Weather Channel. https://weather.com/en-IN/india/news/news/2023-05-03-weather-photographer-of-the-year-awards-winning-photos

  • Sometimes information extracted from PowerPoint presentations becomes necessary to cite in the argument. How to cite a website APA in such a case? Go through the below format:

Name. (Date). Slide title [PowerPoint slides]. URL

Chan, S. (2013, April 11). Stock Pitch WM [PowerPoint slides]. https://www.slideshare.net/sindychan212/stock-pitch-wm

APA Citation of an Entry

There could be a unique rare-known word you have used in your piece, the source of which should be referred to in the bibliography. Check how to cite a website APA when a source is an online dictionary, encyclopedia, or thesaurus:

Name. (Year). Entry Title. Name of the Editor(s) (Ed.), Reference title (Edition). Publisher. URL or DOI

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Whatchamacallits. In Merriam-Webster.com thesaurus. May 25, 2023, https://www.merriam-webster.com/thesaurus/whatchamacallits

Citing a Downloaded Software in APA Style

Name of the developer. (Published year of the version). Title (Version #.#). [Software type]. Publisher/Mobile App Store name. URL

343 Industries. (2021, November 15). Halo Infinite. [Video Game]. Xbox Game Studios. https://store.steampowered.com/app/1240440/Halo_Infinite/

There may not be a version mentioned in many mobile applications and desktop software. Without worrying about how to cite a website APA in that situation, just get a look at the above example.

Common Rules of APA Format of Referencing

APA is the abbreviation for American Psychological Association which focuses on building a set of rules which allow students and scholar researchers to use already published works of other authors in their own piece of research or speech outline maintaining a cohesive and well-organized structure. If nothing is mentioned in the university or college guidelines or by immediate instructors, then one can follow the APA citation format for psychology, education, and science disciplines. The formats and examples of previous sections clearly tell you how to cite a website APA in a variety of situations. It can be discerned that there is a certain common pattern of using each element. Let’s take a look at how to identify if an article follows an APA 7th edition citation format by going through its bibliography/referencing list:

  • The reference entry always begins with the name of the author or creator. If it is the name of an individual, first you have to write the last name of the person, followed by a comma, and then the first and middle initial of their name, followed by a period. Whereas, if it is the name of an organization, then the entire name of the group is mentioned as it is.
  • The date pattern is always the same – Year, Month Date within a bracket. In cases where the specific date is missing, just write the year. And if nothing is mentioned, then write “n.d.” within brackets, meaning “not dated”.
  • No space is to be added within brackets.
  • “Retrieved from” is written before URL and DOIs only when the content of the article or media is likely to change in due course. Examples of how to cite a website APA in that scenario are only if it is a review page or an article with comments. There is no other special application.
  • After every essential element a period (.) is placed to distinguish it from the next mentioned element.

This article only refers to the instances where you need to extract a portion of information from electronic media. Apart from how to cite a website APA style, there are many other types of sources that one might cite. If interested to learn those, feel free to reach our experts. We assure you to always provide updated information.

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MLA Format Heading: Rules, Comparisons, and Applications

  • Eduhelphub,
  • May 29, 2023

Presenting an assignment paper in academia is no duck soup. As intricate as it is the research and writing process, students also have to take good care of the paper formatting style. One such writing style consists of MLA format heading, section header, subheadings, and reference list, altogether termed MLA format.

Following the 9th edition of the MLA handbook accurately denotes that the student can demonstrate professionalism by adhering to the instructions. Consistency in projecting ideas facilitates a smooth flow of communication which in turn increases the credibility of research papers, journals, theses, or any other literary piece that a student and scholar are supposed to write. Keep on reading this article of EduHelpHub to learn how the uniform writing style of MLA format heading and its associated elements helped MLA style grow its popularity since yesteryears.

Difference Between MLA Format Heading and MLA Header

MLA format includes MLA format heading, header, and citation styles, but often MLA heading and MLA header are either misinterpreted or used interchangeably. Because of the similar sound, the purpose of both terms is left unacknowledged. The one most identifiable difference is that the MLA format heading is written only on the first page of an assignment, whereas the MLA header is mentioned on each of the pages.

MLA heading is basically the title that provides identifying information, which includes the full name of the author, the last name of the professor with academic credentials, the name of the subject followed by the course code, and the date. No additional information is attached unless it is specified by the instructor or college. The MLA format heading always involves writing it at the top left corner of the page. Supporting the information of the heading, MLA headers are written.

MLA headers are also called section headers or running heads, that essentially consist of the last name of the author and page numbers. It is placed at the top right corner recording the track of each page. This helps in reminding the reader that whose paper they are reading and how many pages they have covered.

MLA Heading and Header Example

Sanders 1

Jeremy Sanders

Professor Walker

Human Resource Management 3020

6 February 2023

It can be seen that whatever has been discussed earlier is demonstrated in the above example. The top right corner is the MLA header, whereas the rest of the information in the top left section is the MLA heading. You can perhaps relate the section header with certain textbooks, in which the name of the book is mentioned in place of the author’s surname followed by the page number of the cited information.

MLA headers as you can see are much easier to understand. There are certainly other formatting styles, the most common of all are APA and Chicago. But MLA headers are independent of punctuations, abbreviations, and font styles, such as italics and bold. It has no particular requirement other than it is placed beneath a half-inched margin and written in 12 points Times New Roman font type.

Requirements of MLA Format Heading

Do you recall the time when your English teacher taught you to write a letter? The first step was to mention the date, address yourself, and then write the title of the letter. The concept is somewhat similar here but follows a different order. You are addressing yourself, your guide, and the name and code of your curriculum, accompanied by the date. The next step whereby follows the title of the paper.

MLA format heading comes with a specific set of rules that is mandatory to follow if instructed to maintain an MLA formatting style throughout the research paper. Below are the required essentials to write the four lines –

  • It is obvious to maintain left alignment
  • The top left corner must leave a margin of 1 inch
  • The preferable font type should be Times New Roman
  • The font size is standardized at 12 points
  • If no other option is provided, the text must be double-spaced

Note that there is no usage of periods or any other punctuations or signs in MLA format heading. The font type and size are the same throughout the assignment paper. And it is written only on the first page of the paper. It can be noticed that the format is very uncomplicated.

Steps to Implement MLA Format Heading in MS Word

Since these types of assignments have technicalities to maintain, they are not meant to be handwritten. The majority of the students write their theses and dissertations in MS Word. There is a simple trick that all students must use to insert a running header maintaining the MLA heading format.

  1. Go to the “Insert” tab above.
  2. Click on the “Page Number” option. You will come across a drop-down menu asking you to choose the position where you seek to add the page numbers.
  3. Hover over “Top of Page” and select the option “Plain Number 3”.
  4. The cursor will automatically take you to the header, where you can type the last name tailed by a space.
  5. If the font type and size differ from the requirement, you can select the written text and change them as necessary. Often this minute detail is kept ignored.

MLA headers or any other type of header is only one-time insertion. As you keep writing the persuasive essay or other assignment paper types the page number will keep adding on by itself. Now if you ask if there are any such short-cut tricks to insert MLA format heading, then the answer is simply a “No”.  There is no specific technique; the information is meant to be hand typed entirely.

Steps to Add MLA Style Header in Google Docs

Many students now use Mac which doesn’t come with MS Word application. In that case, they may prepare their assignments using Google Docs. Affixing an MLA header is slightly different to imply here.

  1. Click on the “Insert” option.
  2. Hover down the “Headers and Footers option” and select “Header”.
  3. The cursor will be on the upper left corner of the page where you have to type your last name and page number with a space in between.
  4. Select the written text and change the left alignment to the right alignment in the toolbar. You can also change the font type and size here, if necessary.

It is pretty evident that none of the procedures of MLA format heading and header are complex to work on it. But it is the minor detail that has the possibility to miss.

MLA Titles and Section Headings

Most of the time, students and researchers use section headings to hook the readers. this divides the information into more identifiable sections which enriches the readability. These mini headlines may include subheadings, sub-topics, sub-chapters, or other relevant chunks of description.

Like MLA format headings, these section headings too are always left aligned but are written in numbered or multileveled lists. It is recommended by MLA that while writing an essay outline or other types of assignments, one must use Arabic numbers followed by a dot and space, and then write the section heading. Let’s take an example to understand the concept much better. If the topic of a paper is on the marketing models, then possible sub-points can be –

  1. SWOT Analysis
  2. STP Marketing Model
  3. Ansoff Matrix
  4. McKinsey 7-S Framework
  5. Hook Model
  6. Growth-Share Matrix
  7. Innovation Adoption Lifecycle

There are possibilities that you may require to include multiple specific points under individual section headings, which can be termed subheadings. In such cases, it is recommended to apply a multilevel listing outline using Arabic numbers. Suppose the topic of the assignment is 7Ps of Marketing, this can be the type of listing to utilize –

1. Product

1.1. Quality

1.2. Branding

1.3. Features

1.4. Usability

1.5. Warranty

2. Price

2.1. Positioning

2.2. Payment Method

2.3. Discount

2.4. Value-added elements

3. Promotion

3.1. Marketing Channels

3.2. Branding

3.3. Sales Promotion

3.4. Personal Promotion

3.5. Direct Marketing

Apparently, the structure of the paper will look more organized and lucid if discussed the details this way.

If you prefer not to use number listings then there is another way to manage the different types of headings. Bold the chapter title or the main heading to indicate greater emphasis, leave the section headings with no formatting, and italicize the subordinate headings. Look down the example for better comprehension –

Main Title

Section Heading


There are, in fact, heading styles in MS Word and Google Docs that you can apply, only after asking permission from your immediate instructor. These styles keep the look of the headings consistent and compatible with the default font of your paper.

The title of the research paper appears only on the first page of the academic paper following the MLA format heading. You have to press enter after writing the elements of the MLA heading and then write the title formatting it to center aligned using a title case capitalization. Refer to this illustration below –

Parker 1

Grace Parker

Professor Bennett

Healthcare 2010

18 August 2022

A Study of Public Health Treatments in Developing Countries

[Detailed information]

1. Level 1 Heading

[Detailed information]

2. Level 1 Heading

[Detailed information]

1.1. Level 2 Heading

[Detailed information]

1.2. Level 2 Heading

[Detailed information]

Styling MLA Format Headings

MLA Style Center has specific heading styling rules that writers must acknowledge. The foremost rule is that there is no need to use headings in a short piece of essays, however, if the research paper is lengthier, you must definitely use headings and subheadings. Following are more such instructions –


The levels of MLA format headings must be styled in descending order, i.e., superior headings followed by subordinate headings. You can relate to the examples in the above section. For identifying a more prominent point, size up the font or make it bold. On the other hand, supporting points can be sized down, nonbold, or italicized. Do not use all capital text in headings, it may look overexaggerated.


To maintain coherence, use the same font style and size throughout the paper. Meaning, write all the level 1 MLA headings in the same style, level 2 sub-sections in the same style, and level 3 subheadings in the same style. This reflects transparency without any miscommunicated confusion.


All levels of MLA format headings have to be positioned in the left margin. This excludes the chapter title, which is compulsively centered in the MLA essay format, and the MLA header which is right-aligned on every page.


Every internal heading must include multiple instances. That means, no paper should contain only one level 1 heading. If there is one, you must include two or more level 1 heading, and each subheading must have elements of information. Otherwise, it will just be bullet points.

Apart from these, there are more other guidelines that are as important as the already mentioned points above.

  • Including line spaces above and below the MLA headings indicate more legibility.
  • Both headings and subheadings must follow the Sentence Case sequence.
  • It is better to write shorter subordinate headings.
  • Avoid overusing headlines. The number of headlines should be coherent with the length of the essay paper.


It is perceptible that MLA has left spaces for flexibility so that you can apply your own style of appeal that suits your assignment. But what stays intact is the positioning and styling of MLA format heading. However, there are more areas to pay attention to.

This particular article focuses only on the MLA format headings and headers and subheadings that are associated with it. MLA Style Center has more to the guidelines, like including formatting the in-text citations and bibliography styles that must not be avoided to exert in the essay paper. The motive here is to concise the researched information to a quantifiable size and enhance readability.

Hopefully, the peculiarities of the paper title, MLA format heading, MLA header, and subheadings are well understood by now. The provided examples have made it even more clear.

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What is Occupational Therapy?

  • Eduhelphub,
  • Mar 17, 2022

Occupational therapy is a form of health care service that aims at solving problems which interfere with the day-to-day activities of an individual. These daily activities can be as simple as getting dressed up to something more complex like commuting to work and returning home. So, the primary goal of occupational therapy is to enable individuals participate in activities of their daily lives.

Who are Occupational Therapists?

Occupational therapy is provided by Occupational therapists, commonly known as OTs. They are professionals with specialized knowledge and skills to help people lead a more satisfying and productive lifestyle. An occupational therapist can operate in a wide range of settings such as:

Institutions: Rehabilitation Centers, Hospitals, Correctional Institutions, etc.

Home and Community: Community Action Groups, Home Care, Group Homes, etc.

Organizations and Business: Corporations, Insurance companies, etc.

Government Bodies: Governmental bodies advising on health promotion, etc.

An occupational therapist work with people of all ages, from infants to midlife adults to seniors, to help them resume their daily schedule seamlessly.

Who Needs Occupational Therapy?

Occupational therapy helps people to adapt to specific environment and conditions. So, it is for anyone who is struggling with any form of day-to-day activities or to adapt to a new setting. Typically, occupational therapies have proved to be quite helpful for patients recovering from:

  • Musculoskeletal injury
  • Low Vision
  • Poor Balance
  • Terminal Diseases
  • Mental Health
  • Behavioral Issues

How Does Occupational Therapy Work?

The process of occupational therapy can vary significantly based on the need of the concerned individual. However, it can be broken down into four stages:


In the assessment stage, the occupational therapist, together with the individual, work to identify the concerning issues. It involves the use of standardized procedures of interviewing and observation.


Based on the assessment, the therapist formulates a plan for the short- and long-term treatments. It is ensured that the plan is relevant to the individual stages of development, life-style, habits, and surrounding environment.


The intervention are programs which are oriented specifically to the individual and their environment. They are designed to facilitate superior performance of daily tasks and better adaptation to the environmental setting in which the person lives, works and socializes.


Cooperation with other care givers and family members, play an essential role in occupational therapy. It enables them to take a more holistic approach to recovery of the individual to their normal routine.

Occupational therapy can be availed by consulting with a medical practitioner, hospital or rehab center. It is always advised to consult with a medical professional before appointing an occupational therapist. Even though OTs have proved to be highly beneficial for helping people adapt to their conditions, but the success of therapy is highly dependent on the degree of cooperation from the individual.

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Methodology : Calculating The GavelGap

  • Eduhelphub,
  • Nov 25, 2021

A thorough survey was being done by the essay writer online and then effective data was collected by us for each and every judge from the various state trial courts and state appellate courts of general jurisdiction till December 2020. The entire dataset has been constructed upon reliable and credible sources of information like telephonic interviews with lawyers and judges, judicial directories, campaign websites of the judges, state’s printed directories; press release and government web pages, newspapers, academic journals, university publications and professional association.

This article is all about the various minorities and the women’s position in the judicial system in the states of the US. also it is to be noted that all the figures given are approximate figures only. The characteristics of these judges of the state courts are not being analysed by us directly and all the information is being taken up from the secondary sources only. Also going through the available data, we were still unable to gain knowledge about the ethnicity and race of almost 5% of the state court judges. The gender for each of them was easily identified by each of them. All the estimations have been done on the basis of the available data. In this dataset, we have considered the judges who have been serving in the various courts till december 2021.

The gavel gap is mainly calculated with the composition of women and minority people in the judicial bench and the composition of these groups of people among the general population. You can also take the help of a brilliant essay writer service to do this. The gavel gap is done by dividing the number of women and minority people in the judicial bench and women and minority in the general population by the proportionary number of women and minority in the general population. So if half of the population sitting on the bench are women and minorities and also if half of the total population is women and minorities, then the gavel gap will turn out to be Zero. If 10% of the population sitting on the bench are women and minorities and half of the total population is women and minorities, then the gavel gap would be: (.10 – .50) / .50) = 0.80. This indicates that the state has got 80% less women and minorities and has got only 20% of the women and minorities representation in the state. This is how the difference is easily being calculated.

The Representative Score, on the other hand, denotes the success of a state in lessening down the gavel gap and providing a fair justice and law system. When the population sitting on the bench are women and minorities and the total population of women and minorities becomes equal, it indicates a higher grade for the state.

  • A if the state has got 90% score and has parity
  • B is used to represent the states with 80% to 89%
  • C is used to represent the states with 70% to 79%
  • D is used to represent the states with 60% to 69%
  • E is used for the states with below 60%
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